1911 - 1950

World War II Incarceration: 1942

Gordon Hirabayashi, a Quaker student at University of Washington, refuses to report to an “assembly center” and is arrested. He files a lawsuit.

World War II Incarceration: July 1942

WakayamaWakayamaThe ACLU of Southern California represents former Terminal Island residents Ernest and Toki Wakayama who challenge the constitutionality of the forced removal of Japanese Americans.

EndoEndoOn behalf of Mitsuye Endo, attorney James Purcell files a writ of habeas corpus for the government to show cause why Endo should not be released from detention.

World War II Incarceration: Oct. 1942

Government lifts all restrictive orders against Italian “enemy aliens.”

World War II Incarceration: Dec. 1942

Military police open fire at Manzanar during a mass demonstration to protest the arrest and imprisonment of a camp union leader accused of assaulting a man suspected of informing on camp dissidents. Two people die and many are injured.

Religion: 1943

In a rare move, on Flag Day, the U.S. Supreme Court reverses itself on the flag salute, asserting the right of religious liberty and ruling that Jehovah’s Witnesses cannot be compelled to salute the flag or recite the Pledge of Allegiance.

Criminal Justice: 1943

During several nights in June, white military personnel attack young Mexican American men wearing zoot suits in downtown, East and Southcentral Los Angeles.

World War II Incarceration: Jan. 1943

At the encouragement of the Japanese American Citizens League the War Department forms an all Japanese American combat team composed of second-generation (Nisei) men. 

Immigrants' Rights: 1943

Congress repeals the Chinese Exclusion Act as a goodwill gesture to World War II ally China. Still, only 105 Chinese can immigrate annually until the mid-1960s.

BracerosBraceros U.S. and Mexico finalize the bracero treaty authorizing the U.S. government to hire impoverished Mexicans as temporary farm and railroad laborers. Over the following two decades, an estimated 2 million braceros work in the U.S.


World War II Incarceration: March 1943

Wakayamas dismiss their habeas corpus petition.

World War II Incarceration: June 1943

The War Relocation Authority (WRA) designates Tule Lake as the camp for all people who answered “No” to the controversial WRA questions and those considered “troublemakers” from all the other camps. They begin arriving at Tule Lake in September and October 1943.

In Hirabayashi v. U.S. and Yasui v. U.S., the U.S. Supreme Court upholds the constitutionality of the curfew against Japanese Americans.

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