1911 - 1950

Race: 1924

California Supreme Court rules in Piper v. Big Pine School District that the education of Indian children is a state, not federal, responsibility.  Therefore, Indian children must attend state schools, but they can be segregated.

Immigrants' Rights: 1924

Congress passes legislation cutting off immigration from Japan.

Dissent: 1925

U.S. Supreme Court upholds Charlotte Anita Whitney’s conviction and the constitutionality of California’s criminal syndicalism law.

Dissent: 1927

Governor Clement Young pardons Charlotte Anita Whitney, who comments “How can I be pardoned when I’ve done nothing wrong?”

Los Angeles Police Chief James Davis names William “Red” Hynes to head the department’s “Red Squad,” which for the following 10 years spies on, harasses, censors, and physically assaults the city’s leftist political radicals.

Race: 1930

Anti-FilipinoAnti-FilipinoWhite mobs attack Filipino laborers in the Watsonville area, resulting in the murder of Fermin Tobera, whose death is mourned throughout the Philippines.

Labor: 1930

Union leaders in the Imperial Valley are convicted of violating the Criminal Syndicalism Act, the first time that the act is used against farm labor organizers.

Immigrants' Rights: 1930

RepatriationRepatriationU.S. government begins a program of mass deportations of Mexican and Mexican American workers. Between 1931 and 1934, the Los Angeles Department of Charities sends 15 trainloads, averaging 1,000 people each, to Mexico.

Immigrants' Rights: 1931

Mass raid on the plaza in Los Angeles. Those without identity documents are detained and sent to Mexico without the opportunity to contact their families.

Dissent: 1931

In Stromberg v. California, the U.S. Supreme Court overturns the conviction of Yetta Stromberg, who was convicted of violating California’s law banning the display of red flags. This is the first Supreme Court decision striking down a state law because it restricted an individual’s right to freedom of expression.

Race: 1931

Mexican American parents in the San Diego county community of Lemon Grove successfully sue to permit the integration of their children into the white school.

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