1790 - 1870

Immigrants' Rights: 1790

Congress passes a law limiting naturalization to "free white persons."

Early California: 1848

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends Mexican American War.

Gold discovered in California

Early California: July 15, 1849

The HoundsThe HoundsThe Hounds, a paramilitary gang, attack Chileans in San Francisco.

Early California: Sept. 1 - Oct. 30, 1849

Bilingual Spanish-English Constitutional Convention held in Monterey.

Early California, Race: Nov. 13, 1849

Constitucion del Estado de CaliforniaConstitucion del Estado de CaliforniaVoters approve the bilingual state constitution, which outlaws slavery.

Early California: Dec. 15, 1849

First state legislature meets in San Jose.

Early California, LGBT Rights: 1850

Legislature criminalizes sodomy as a felony. For decades, the maximum punishment is life imprisonment.

Early California, Immigrants' Rights: 1850

Foreign Miners’ Tax of $20 a month is levied to discourage Latino miners. The tax is repealed in 1851.

Early California, Race: 1850

A mob drives Mexican miners out of Tuolumne County, killing many of them.

Early California, Women: 1850

Legislature passes a ban on abortion; in 1858 the law is extended to criminalize disseminating information about abortion.

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